A zener of breakdown voltage V_{z} = 8 V and maximum zener current, I_{ZM} = 10 mA is subjectd to an input voltage V_{i} = 10 V with series resistance R = 100 $$\Omega$$. In the given circuit R_{L} represents the variable load resistance. The ratio of maximum and minimum value of R_{L} is _____________.

The cut-off voltage of the diodes (shown in figure) in forward bias is 0.6 V. The current through the resister of 40 $$\Omega$$ is __________ mA.

As per the given circuit, the value of current through the battery will be ____________ A.

In an experiment of CE configuration of n-p-n transistor, the transfer characteristics are observed as given in figure.

If the input resistance is 200 $$\Omega$$ and output resistance is 60 $$\Omega$$, the voltage gain in this experiment will be ____________.