A processor X1 operating at 2 GHz has a standard 5-stage RISC instruction pipeline having a base CPI (cycles per instruction) of one without any pipeline hazards. For a given program P that has 30% branch instructions, control hazards incur 2 cycles stall for every branch. A new version of the processor X2 operating at same clock frequency has an additional branch predictor unit (BPU) that completely eliminates stalls for correctly predicted branches. There is neither any savings nor any additional stalls for wrong predictions. There are no structural hazards and data hazards for X1 and X2. If the BPU has a prediction accuracy of 90%, the speed up (rounded off to two decimal places) obtained by X2 over X1 in executing P is ____________.
$$1.\,\,\,\,\,$$ The $$j+1$$ instruction uses the result of the $$j$$-$$th$$ instruction as an operand
$$2.\,\,\,\,\,$$ The execution of a conditional jump instruction
$$3.\,\,\,\,\,$$ The $$j$$-$$th$$ and $$j+1$$ instruction require the $$ALU$$ at the same time
Which of the above can cause a hazard?