1
GATE ME 1993
+1
-0.3
Shown below are three pipe sections through which water flows as shown. Option $$(a)$$ to $$(d)$$ below pertain to the direction of the net force on the pipe section due to the flow of water. State which of the options indicate the correct direction of force for pipe $$1,$$ pipe $$2$$ and pipe $$3.$$

A
$${45^0}$$ to both $$+ve$$ $$X$$ and $$+ve$$ $$Y$$ axes
B
$${45^0}$$ to both $$-ve$$ $$X$$ and $$+ve$$ $$Y$$ axes
C
$${45^0}$$ to both $$+ve$$ $$X$$ and $$-ve$$ $$Y$$ axes
D
$${45^0}$$ to both $$-ve$$ $$X$$ and $$-ve$$ $$Y$$ axes
2
GATE ME 1993
Subjective
+1
-0
Shown below are three cylindrical gates which restrain water in $$2$$-$$D$$ channel. Which gate experiences the maximum vertical component, the minimum vertical component and the maximum horizontal component of the hydrostatic force? 3
GATE ME 1993
Subjective
+2
-0
Shown below are three tanks, tank $$1$$ without an orifice tube and tanks $$2$$ and $$3$$ with orifice tubes as shown. Neglecting losses and assuming the diameter of orifice to be much less than that of the tank, write expressions for the exit velocity in each of the three tanks. 4
GATE ME 1993
Subjective
+5
-0
The velocity profile across a boundary layer on a flat plate may be approximated as linear $${V_x}\left( {x,y} \right) = {{{V_0}y} \over {\delta \left( x \right)}}$$\$

Where $${{V_0}}$$ is the velocity far away and $$\delta \left( x \right)$$ is the boundary layer thickness at a distance $$x$$ from the leading edge, as shown below. (a)$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$ Use an appropriate control volume to determine the rate of mass influx into the
$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$$$\,\,$$$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$boundary layer up to $$x.$$

(b)$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$ Obtain the momentum thickness into the boundary layer up to $$x.$$

(c)$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$ In which direction (up or down) does the shear stress act on the face $$AB$$ of
$$\,\,\,\,\,\,$$$$\,\,\,\,\,\,\,$$the fluid element shown near the plate?

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