A cache memory that has a hit rate of 0.8 has an access latency 10 ns and miss penalty 100 ns. An optimization is done on the cache to reduce the miss rate. However, the optimization results in an increase of cache access latency to 15 ns, whereas the miss penalty is not affected. The minimum hit rate (rounded off to two decimal places) needed after the optimization such that it should not increase the average memory access time is _________.
Consider a system with 2 KB direct mapped data cache with a block size of 64 bytes. The system has a physical address space of 64 KB and a word length of 16 bits. During the execution of a program, four data words P, Q, R, and S are accessed in that order 10 times (i.e., PQRSPQRS .....). Hence, there are 40 accesses to data cache altogether. Assume that the data cache is initially empty and no other data words are accessed by the program. The addresses of the first bytes of P, Q, R, and S are 0$$\times$$A248, 0$$\times$$C28A, 0$$\times$$CA8A, and 0$$\times$$A262, respectively. For the execution of the above program, which of the following statements is/are TRUE with respect to the data cache?
A processor X1 operating at 2 GHz has a standard 5-stage RISC instruction pipeline having a base CPI (cycles per instruction) of one without any pipeline hazards. For a given program P that has 30% branch instructions, control hazards incur 2 cycles stall for every branch. A new version of the processor X2 operating at same clock frequency has an additional branch predictor unit (BPU) that completely eliminates stalls for correctly predicted branches. There is neither any savings nor any additional stalls for wrong predictions. There are no structural hazards and data hazards for X1 and X2. If the BPU has a prediction accuracy of 90%, the speed up (rounded off to two decimal places) obtained by X2 over X1 in executing P is ____________.
Consider the problem of reversing a singly linked list. To take an example, given the linked list below:
the reversed linked list should look like
Which one of the following statements is TRUE about the time complexity of algorithms that solve the above problem in O(1) space?