## Marks 1

Consider a steel (Young’s modulus $$E = 200$$ $$GP$$a) column hinged on both sides. Its height is $$1.0$$ $$m$$ and cross-section is $$10 mm$$ $$ \tim...

For a long slender column of uniform cross section, the ratio of critical buckling load for the case with both ends clamped to the case with both ends...

A pin-ended column of length $$L,$$ modulus of elasticity $$E$$ and second moment of the cross-sectional area $$I$$ is loaded centrally by a compressi...

For the case of a slender column of length $$l,$$ and flexural rigidity $$EI$$ built-in at its base and free at the top, the Euler’s critical buckling...

If the length of a column is doubled, the critical load becomes:

## Marks 2

An initially stress-free massless elastic beam of length $$L$$ and circular cross-section with diameter $$d (d < < L)$$ is held fixed between tw...

A column has a rectangular cross-section of 10 mm $$ \times $$ 20 mm and a length of 1 m. The slenderness ratio of the column is close to

The rod $$PQ$$ of length $$L$$ and with flexural rigidity $$EI$$ is hinged at both ends. For what minimum force $$F$$ is expected to buckle?
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